This hero of the Chaco War was serving as a special envoy to the United States, and on June 13 Estigarribia and US Secretary of State Cordell Hull signed the Export-Import Bank loan of US$3.5 million. However, this time the candidate was not an internal opponent to the President and self-proclaimed reformer, as in the two previous elections, but Minister of Education Blanca Ovelar, the first woman to appear as a candidate for a major party in Paraguayan history. 1870 marked the lowest point in Paraguayan history. The eastern part of present-day Paraguay was occupied by Guaraní peoples for at least 1,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Choosing what was possibly the worst site for the first Spanish settlement in South America, in February 1536 Mendoza built a fort at a place of poor anchorage on the southern side of the Plata estuary on an inhospitable, windswept, dead-level plain where not a tree or shrub grew. Yet despite his apparent liberalism, Antonio López was a dictator who allowed Paraguayans no more freedom to oppose the government than they had had under Francia. The Allied victory in World War II pressured Moríñigo to liberalize his regime in 1946. Both parties had former López supporters and Paraguayan Legion veterans in their ranks. In 1811, Paraguay gained independence from Spain. [10] When the battle of Paraguarí started, Belgrano's troops had an initial advantage, but eventually Velazco's numerical superiority prevailed, thanks to the intervention of the Paraguayan patriots, around 3,500 men, resulting in the combined Paraguayan forces vastly outnumbering the Argentines. By the end of 1868, the Paraguayan army had shrunk to a few thousand soldiers (many of them children and women) who exhibited suicidal bravery. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence. They commenced building a fort on August 15, 1537, the date of the Feast of the Assumption, and called it Asunción (Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción, in full, Our Lady Saint Mary of the Assumption). Foreign experts helped build an iron factory at Ybycuí and a large armory. After four months of fighting, Escurra signed the Pact of Pilcomayo aboard an Argentine gunboat on December 12, 1904, and handed power to the Liberals. Having inherited Estigarribia's near-dictatorial powers provided by the new 1940 Constitution, Moríñigo quickly banned febreristas and Liberals and clamped down drastically on free speech and individual liberties. News of the revolutionary events in Buenos Aires stunned royalist citizens of Asunción. See Mitre's "Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina". (Source: InfoPlease) 9. "La Lynch", as she became known in Paraguay, was a strong-willed, charming, witty, intelligent woman who became a person of enormous influence. On November 25, 1906, the old Liberal hero, General Benigno Ferreira, was elected to the presidency.[25]. Leaving him after a short time, Salazar and Gonzalo de Mendoza descended the river, stopping at a fine anchorage. After a short Presidency, González joined Moríñigo in exile and Chavez assumed Presidency on September 10, 1949. Social conditions – always marginal in Paraguay – deteriorated during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Guaraní, the Cario, Tapé, Itatine, Guarajo, Tupí, and related subgroups, were generous people who inhabited an immense area stretching from the Guyana Highlands in Brazil to the Río Uruguay. This porteño action had unforeseen consequences for the histories of Argentina and Paraguay. Paraguay has two official languages, Spanish and Guarani. His domain included all of present-day Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, most of Chile, as well as large parts of Brazil and Bolivia. When navigation became difficult, Cabot turned back, after having obtained some silver objects that the Indians said came from a land far to the west. [citation needed] One of Cubas' first acts after taking office in August was to commute Oviedo's sentence and release him from confinement. Jara's coup backfired as it touched off an anarchic two-year period in which every major political group seized power at least once and led to the Civil War of 1912. Paraguay made large strides in education. With Solano López on the run, the country lacked a government. A few days later his goal was made more specific: he must aim for Paraguay. On September 22, 1861, the Central railway station was opened in Asunción. When he tried to fill it with the Colorado Party, he split the party in two, and neither faction could establish itself in power without help from the military. Its fertile soil and the country's overall backwardness helped it survive. Asunción became the center of a Spanish province that encompassed a large portion of central South America — it was dubbed La Provincia Gigante de Indias. The porteños bungled their effort to extend control over Paraguay by choosing José Espínola y Peña as their spokesman in Asunción. He was clear that preserving Uruguayan independence was crucial to Paraguay's future as a nation. Paraguay declared its independence from Spain on May 15, 1811. Alonzo lacked authority to rule, and on March 14, 1841, the two-man consulate of early Independence era was recreated. So the two currents that eventually led to the Liberal and Colorado Parties began.[20]. INDEPENDENCE AND DICTATORSHIP. Slavery had existed in Paraguay since early colonial days. But when he published his distinctly fascist-sounding Decree Law No. Voltaire called the Jesuit government "a triumph of humanity".[7]. The remaining López loyalists gathered around Cándido Bareiro who, on March 31, 1869, founded the Republican Union Club which in early 1870 became the Club del Pueblo and after February 17, 1878, Club Libertad and who published their newspaper La Voz del Pueblo. [3], Leaving a small force on the northern shore of the broad estuary, Cabot proceeded up the Río Paraná for about 160 kilometers, where he founded a settlement he named Sancti Spiritu. Solano López's hostility even extended to United States Ambassador to Paraguay Charles Ames Washburn. Father Pedro Fernández de la Torre arrived on April 2, 1556, as the first bishop of Asunción, marking the official establishment of the Roman Catholic Church in Paraguay. Paraguay was first colonised by the Spanish in the 16th century. These developments supported Francia's policy of economic self-sufficiency. López, a lawyer, was one of the most educated men in the country. In contrast to lean Francia, López was obese (a "great tidal wave of human flesh", according to one witness). In 1939 the Liberal politicians, recognizing that they had to choose someone with national stature and popularity to be President if they wanted to keep power, picked General José Félix Estigarribia as their candidate on March 19, 1939. Governments led by two former López-era officers Bernardino Caballero (1880–86) and Patricio Escobar (1886–90) started a more earnest national reconstruction. [5], The first Jesuits arrived in Asunción in 1588 and founded their first reduction of San Ignacio Guazú only in 1609. The Viceroyalty of Peru and the Audiencia of Charcas had nominal authority over Paraguay, while Madrid largely neglected the colony. An amalgam of diverse ideologies and interests, the League reflected a genuine popular wish for social change. By the end of the rebellion in August 1948 the Colorado Party, which had been out of power since 1904, had almost total control in Paraguay. National University was founded in 1889. Evidence indicates that these indigenous Americans developed a fairly sophisticated semi-nomadic culture characterized by numerous tribes, divided by language, who each occupied several independent multi-village communities. Paraguay lacked the industrial base to replace weapons lost in battle, and the Argentine-Brazilian alliance prevented Solano López from receiving arms from abroad. Meanwhile, the influence of the armed forces in the domestic politics had increased dramatically as no Paraguayan government since the Chaco War held the power without its consent. Belgrano saw Velazco's army from the Mbaé hill, and despite being greatly outnumbered he ordered the attack anyway, trusting in the moral strength of his soldiers. The core units of the Paraguayan army reached Corrientes in April 1865. Welcome to Latin America tour and travel guide. In 1821 Francia struck against the Spanish-born elite, summoning all of Paraguay's 300 or so peninsulares to Asunción's main square, where he accused them of treason, had them arrested, and held them in jail for 18 months. Paraguayan international trade stopped almost completely. Spain appropriated much of Paraguay's wealth through burdensome taxes and regulations. In this tense atmosphere, the murder of Vice President and long-time Oviedo rival Luis María Argaña on March 23, 1999, led the Chamber of Deputies to impeach Cubas the next day. He sent political prisoners, numbering approximately 400 in any given year, to a detention camp where they were shackled in dungeons and denied medical care and even the use of sanitary facilities. The Liberals, like the Colorados, were a deeply factionalized political oligarchy. Belgrano ignored all this when he invaded Paraguay, believing that he would find a favorable political situation. As a result of its distance from the rest of the empire, Paraguay had little control over important decisions that affected its economy. Around 500-1,000 men (killed, wounded and prisoners), This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 17:16. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia served from 1811 until his death in 1840 and built a strong, prosperous, secure nation at a time when Paraguay's continued existence as an independent country seemed unlikely. In the end the Brazilian-supported politicians won, and established the rule of the Colorado party. The May Revolution led to the creation of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata which wanted to bring Province of Paraguay under its control. Thousands of others, including Paraguay's bravest soldiers and generals, also went to their deaths before firing squads or were hacked to pieces on Solano López's orders. Left without any outlet to the sea, Bolivia wanted to absorb the Chaco and expand its territory up to the Paraguay river in order to gain a river port. While Colorado politicians raked in the profits and themselves became large landowners, peasant squatters who had farmed the land for generations were forced to vacate and, in many cases, to emigrate. He continued upstream for another 800 kilometers, past the junction with the Río Paraguay. In Hanratty & Meditz. These soldiers had witnessed the miserable state of the Paraguayan army and were forced in many cases to face the enemy armed only with machetes. Three months after the creation of the Primera Junta, Manuel Belgrano was appointed Chief Commander of an army destined to gather support at Corrientes, Santa Fe, Paraguay and the Banda Oriental territories. 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